Definition of Planning, Functions, Objectives, and Types of Planning
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What is meant by planning? In general, the notion of planning is a process of determining the things to be achieved (goals) in the future and determining the various stages needed to achieve these goals.
Understanding planning (planning) can also be defined as a coordinated activity to achieve certain goals in a certain period of time. That way, in the planning there will be an activity testing several directions of achievement, assessing uncertainty, measuring capacity, determining the direction of achievement, and determining steps to achieve it.
Planning is one of the most important functions of management in which there is an activity of defining organizational goals, making strategies, and developing organizational work plans. Planning is the initial stage in the activities of an organization related to achieving the goals of the organization.
In order to better understand what planning means, we can refer to the opinions of the following experts:
According to Erly Suandy (2001: 2), the notion of planning is a process of determining organizational goals and then presenting clearly the strategies, tactics, and operations needed to achieve overall organizational goals.
According to Becker (in Rustiadi 2008: 339), understanding planning is a rational way to prepare for the future.
According to Alder (in Rustiadi 2008: 339), the notion of planning is a process of determining what is to be achieved in the future and determining the stages needed to achieve it.
According to Douglas, the definition of planning is a continuous process of assessment, making goals and objectives, and implementing and evaluating or controlling them.
According to Steiner, the notion of planning is a process of starting with goals, limits of strategies, policies, and detailed plans to achieve them, reaching organizations to implement decisions, and including performance reviews and feedback on introducing new planning cycles.
Basically the planning function is to help the best decision-making process that is in accordance with the goals of the organization. In practice, the planning process carried out by a manager must answer the 5W and 1H questions, namely:
In essence, planning functions to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in organizational activities. Therefore, efforts can be made to identify various obstacles, make corrections to irregularities as soon as possible, so that the organization can be controlled properly.
Each organization certainly has different goals, and of course the plans made will be different. However, basically the organization’s goal of planning is to:
In general, planning can be divided into three, namely based on the scope, based on the level, and based on the time period. The explanation of the types of planning is as follows:
That is a brief explanation of the meaning of planning, functions, goals, and types of planning. Hopefully this article is useful and adds to your insight.