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General Understanding of Audit, Objectives, Types and Audit Standards

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Actually, what is an audit? Definition of Audit is the activity of collecting and examining evidence related to information to determine and make a report about the level of conformity between information and the criteria specified.

Generally checks or audits are carried out on financial statements, various accounting records, and supporting evidence made by the management of a company. The auditing process is carried out by the auditor, namely someone who has the competence to audit and is independent.

The purpose of the audit is to verify the subject of the audit whether it is in accordance with regulations, standards, and methods agreed upon by the company.

In order to better understand what an audit is, we can refer to the opinions of some experts. The following is the meaning of the audit according to experts:

According to Arens and Loebbecke, the notion of audit is the activity of collecting and evaluating evidence regarding information to determine and report the degree of conformity between information and predetermined criteria where the audit process is carried out by competent and independent people.

According to William F. Meisser, Jr., the notion of audit is a systematic process with the aim of evaluating evidence regarding actions and economic events to ensure the degree of conformity between assignments and predetermined criteria, the results of the assignment are communicated to interested parties.

According to the PSAK, the notion of audit is a systematic process that aims to evaluate the evidence collected on statements or assertions about various economic actions, events and see the level of relationship between statements or assertions with reality, and communicate the results to those concerned.

Audits carried out certainly have a specific purpose. Referring to the audit definition above, while the audit objectives are as follows:

An audit is carried out to ensure that all transactions that have occurred have been recorded or entered into the journal with all its completeness.

The audit activity also aims to ensure that all estimated transactions and balances are well documented, the calculations are correct, the amounts are correct, and are classified according to the type of transaction.

With the audit, the recording of all assets and obligations has an existence in accordance with a certain date. In other words, all transactions recorded are in accordance with the actual event.

Audit activities also aim to ensure that all generally accepted accounting principles are applied correctly.

Audit aims to ensure that all transactions recorded in a journal are classified according to the type of transaction.

The audit activity also aims to ensure that the recording of transactions is carried out according to the correct date, the details in the account balance are in accordance with the ledger numbers, and the balance sum is done correctly.

Audit aims to ensure that all transactions that are close to the balance sheet date are recorded in the appropriate period. Recording of transactions at the end of the accounting period is very likely to occur misstatement.

The audit also aims to ensure that the account balance and related disclosure requirements are well presented in the financial statements and there are reasonable explanations for the contents and footnotes of the reports made.

In general, audits can be divided into 2 groups, namely the type of audit based on audit and the type of audit based on the area of ​​examination:

There are two standards for auditing, namely general standards and field standards. Here’s the explanation:

From the reviews above, hopefully you understand what the definition of audit, audit objectives, types of audits, and audit standards are good. Hopefully this brief review is useful and adds to your insight.

Time Management: Definition, Benefits, And Functions and Objectives

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What is meant by time management? Definition of general time management is a planning, organizing, mobilizing, and monitoring, on the productivity of time. Time is one of the resources that must be managed properly so that individuals or organizations can achieve goals effectively and efficiently.

The definition of time management can also be interpreted as a method or way to utilize and regulate each part of time in working on activities that have been planned and must be completed within a predetermined period of time.

The main purpose of time management is to do work effectively and efficiently. Effectiveness in a job can be seen from the achievement of goals or targets that have been set in management (read: Understanding Management) beforehand.

The definition of time management has been explained by several experts as a planning, organizing, driving and controlling the productivity of time related to work.

According to Haynes, the notion of time management is a personal process by utilizing analysis and planning in using time to increase benefits and efficiency.

According to Davidson, the notion of time management is a way to make good use of time where someone is able to get things done faster and work smarter.

According to Leman, the notion of time management is the best use and use of time, as optimal as possible by planning activities in an organized and mature manner.

With good time management one can plan and use time effectively and efficiently, both short and long term.

According to Frederick Winslow Taylor, the notion of time management is the process of achieving the main goals of life as a result of setting aside activities that are not meaningful which often takes a lot of time.

According to Akram, time management is the utilization of the time it has to do things that are considered important that have been recorded in the work table.

According to Widyastuti, the notion of time management is the ability to prioritize, schedule and carry out individual responsibilities for the satisfaction of the individual.

According to Atkinson, time management is a type of skill that is related to all forms of efforts and individual actions carried out in a planned manner so that individuals can use their time as well as possible.

According to Forysth, the definition of time management is a way to make time become controlled so as to ensure the creation of effectiveness and efficiency as well as productivity.

According to Orr, the notion of time management is the ability to use time effectively and efficiently to get maximum benefits.

For beginners who are building a business, time management cannot be ignored and it must be a top priority in terms of achieving targets.

The following are some of the benefits of time management in organizations:

As for personal life, good time management can be seen from the allocation of time for work and also for personal life outside of work. Here are the benefits of time management for personal life:

Good time management is one of the important factors that can determine the success of a business. Time management is related to how one can arrange or schedule each activity so that all work can be done well and on time.

This kind of thing is often underestimated by beginner business people, even though implementing a time management system that is good in business can increase the chances of success of the business that you develop.

Well, here are some time management tips for success in business:

Deciding to go into business, of course, you must be prepared for time-consuming work. In fact, often business people feel that 24 hours a day is not enough to complete certain jobs.

Therefore, with the many activities and work that you must complete, you must make a priority scale. Make a list of what jobs you must complete, how important the work is and when it must be completed.

You can create a list that contains a list of tasks that must be completed starting from the most important to the task that you feel has more grace time.

As explained in the understanding of time management that the goal is to complete the target in accordance with a predetermined period of time. So you need to get used to spelling with time discipline in other words not procrastinating.

It is this undisciplined attitude that makes the work more and more piling up and not immediately resolved.

If you have made a list of tasks that you must complete, then try to always focus on your work.

Try to do what you have done and not be easily tempted by things that are not related to your work. For example, like playing games or often drowsy while working, things like this can delay your success.

Successful entrepreneurs are a group of people who are always busy with work and for them jobs are the top priority. If you feel there is little free time because all work is done, do not be complacent or waste time.

Make your every time valuable for your business. You can use your free time to plan a long-term business or set what targets to achieve within a certain period of time.

In essence, as explained in terms of time management, the goal is to complete and achieve business targets in accordance with the deadlines that have been set.

For professional business people, “time is money and money is time”. Hopefully the article above is useful for those of you who are building a business.

Definition of Logistics, Objectives, Benefits, and Logistics Activities

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What is logistics? In general, the notion of Logistics is a science or art in carrying out the process of storage, distribution and maintenance, and the elimination of various items or certain tools.

There is also a mention that the notion of logistics is a series of processes that include activities of planning, implementation, and supervision of a transfer process, be it goods / services, energy, or other resources, from the starting point to the point of use.

From the explanation of the meaning of logistics, it can be concluded that logistics is part of management science where a series of activities are interconnected and carried out in stages, and aim to manage and maintain certain goods or equipment.

In order to better understand the meaning of logistics, we can refer to the opinions of the following experts:

According to Burg, the notion of logistics is the integration of procurement, transportation, inventory management, and warehousing activities in providing cost-effective tools / ways to meet customer needs, both internal and external.

According to Christopher, the notion of logistics is a process that strategically manages the procurement, movement and storage of materials, parts and finished goods along with the flow of information related through the organization and its marketing channels, in the manner in which the company benefits, both at this time and in the future coming, can be maximized by fulfilling orders that are cost effective.

According to Donald Walters, the notion of logistics is a function that involves moving, regulating the movement of goods, and storing material on its journey from the initial sender, through the supply chain and to the final customer.

All logistics activities are to achieve a goal, namely the availability of the right goods at the right time and place. That way, the company must carry out a series of logistics activities, namely:

In its implementation, logistics activities have performance standards that must be achieved. The level of performance to be achieved in logistics activities is the balance between the quality of service expected by the customer and all costs incurred to achieve the company’s goals.

According to Bowersox, there are two main factors that determine the level of logistics performance, namely

According to Gunawan, there are several logistical activities that are related to one another. The logistics activities are as follows:

Thus a brief explanation of the notion of logistics, objectives and benefits of logistics, and some logistics activities in general. Hopefully this article is useful and adds to your insight.

Marketing Management: Definition, Concepts, Functions, and Objectives

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What is marketing management? Definition of Marketing Management is a series of processes of analysis, planning, implementation, and supervision and control of a marketing activity where the goal is to achieve the target company effectively and efficiently.

Can also be interpreted as a tool for analysis, planning, implementation and control of a program within a company that has been designed to create, build and also maintain exchange in order to provide benefits. This advantage will later be used as a way to achieve the main goals of a business or company.

On the Indonesian Wikipedia site, the notion of marketing management is the process of establishing marketing goals within the organization. This includes all of its activities on how to fulfill these objectives while measuring progress has reached which level by considering market opportunities and internal resources.

Management actors (read: Understanding Management) in the field of marketing is a marketing manager who will study the structure of financing, sources of benefits, resources and competencies. Another thing that marketing managers don’t miss is product differentiation and competitive position, the level of vertical integration, the response history of industrial developments and other factors that are still related to competitors.

Some experts in the field of marketing explain what is meant by marketing management, including:

According to Philip Kotler, marketing management is the process of analyzing, planning, implementing, and monitoring programs aimed at generating exchange with the intended market with the aim of achieving company goals.

According to Dharmmesta and Handoko, the notion of marketing management is one of the main activities carried out by the company to maintain the continuity of the company, develop and benefit from exchange activities. Long before goods are produced, the marketing process has been carried out and does not end in sales.

In addition to sales, these marketing activities must also provide satisfaction to consumers. This must be done by all companies so that their business continues and consumers have a good view of the company.

According to William J. Stanton, the notion of marketing management is a system of overall business activities aimed at planning, pricing, promotion, and distribution of goods / services that can satisfy consumers.

According to Sofjan Assauri, the definition of marketing management is the activity of analysis, planning, implementation, and control of various programs prepared in the formation, development, and maintenance of profits resulting from transactions / exchanges through market objectives to achieve company goals in the long term.

According to Basu Swastha, the definition of marketing management is an overall system of various business activities aimed at planning, pricing, promoting, and distributing goods / services that can satisfy the needs of both existing buyers and potential buyers.

According to Buchori and Djaslim, the notion of marketing management is the process of planning and implementing conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods, and services, to produce exchanges that satisfy individuals and meet organizational goals.

According to Ben M. Eniy, the definition of marketing management is a process to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of marketing activities carried out by individuals or companies.

The concept of marketing management is defined as a business philosophy where satisfying the needs of consumers is an economic and social requirement for the survival of the company’s defense. The aim is to give satisfaction to what consumers want (Stanton, 1978).

Therefore every marketing activity in the company must be directed to that goal. There are 3 important elements including the marketing management concept, namely:

The best marketing concept is to make consumers the top priority. That is why in marketing strategies always prioritize consumers.

In marketing, consumers are usually considered king, and producers are servants who provide the king’s needs. Producer services are carried out by providing various attractive offers, ranging from the best products to customer service.

Dynamic arrangement as a form of overall marketing activities. All marketing activities, from strategy, implementation, analysis, supervision, and other activities related to marketing must be arranged in detail.

That way, the process of analysis and supervision of marketing results can be done well. This will ultimately make it easier to carry out evaluations and remedial actions on marketing activities.

The most important element in marketing is customer satisfaction. Consumer satisfaction is not only measured by the quality of the product, but also from how the marketing strategy is carried out.

A growing business or company must understand good marketing management, especially in this era of globalization where many competitors are competing to market their products even to various foreign countries. Through this article we will discuss marketing management functions and their role for the development of your business.

Companies must run marketing management and involve it as one of the important strategies to achieve goals. Marketing management has the following functions:

Here the exchange function in marketing management is divided into two main functions, namely the purchasing function and the sales function. Furthermore, the purchasing function means the role of marketing management functions as a reciprocal process of sales activities.

That way, a special strategy is needed, especially an understanding of activities that can attract consumers to buy. While the sales function is included in activities to bring together sellers and buyers that can be done directly or through intermediaries.

The physical function of marketing management is focused on the usefulness of time, location and form that needs to be considered in a product when a product will be transported, processed and stored up to the hands of consumers.

If it is not properly considered and planned, the company may experience a large loss due to handling non-standard products.

Marketing management also has a function as the provision of facilities because it will be related to all activities that are capable of launching marketing operations. The function of providing facilities includes all processes of collection, communication, sorting according to standards and financing.

In general there are 6 Marketing Management Objectives, including:

Sales can only occur if there is a request from consumers. To build the demand, various marketing efforts are needed to generate consumer interest and curiosity about goods.

It’s not enough just to get requests from consumers to reach the company’s targets. The next goal is to build customer satisfaction by understanding the needs / desires of consumers, and knowing how the product can meet those needs / wants.

The next marketing management goal is to get positive progress from the product marketshare. The market is like a cake, and every piece of cake is a picture of market share.

All companies expect an increase and expansion of market share or sales. Although sometimes only have a target to maintain the market share that has been obtained.

The final target of all companies is to make a profit. And each company sets a different nominal profit as a measure of its success.

Achieving the nominal profit is one of the objectives of marketing management. How companies can sell with optimal margin values ​​can produce maximum sales levels.

In addition to getting profits, the goal is to get the image in line with expectations. A good image of the product and company will have a positive effect on the company, both in terms of consumers, partners, investors, and labor.

Marketing is the spearhead of the company to achieve sales targets, satisfaction and profit targets. That is the reason why the continuity of the company is also part of marketing management goals.

Thus a review of the understanding of marketing management along with concepts, functions, and objectives in a company. A company cannot achieve its main goals without good and strategic management.

Definition of Planning, Functions, Objectives, and Types of Planning

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What is meant by planning? In general, the notion of planning is a process of determining the things to be achieved (goals) in the future and determining the various stages needed to achieve these goals.

Understanding planning (planning) can also be defined as a coordinated activity to achieve certain goals in a certain period of time. That way, in the planning there will be an activity testing several directions of achievement, assessing uncertainty, measuring capacity, determining the direction of achievement, and determining steps to achieve it.

Planning is one of the most important functions of management in which there is an activity of defining organizational goals, making strategies, and developing organizational work plans. Planning is the initial stage in the activities of an organization related to achieving the goals of the organization.

In order to better understand what planning means, we can refer to the opinions of the following experts:

According to Erly Suandy (2001: 2), the notion of planning is a process of determining organizational goals and then presenting clearly the strategies, tactics, and operations needed to achieve overall organizational goals.

According to Becker (in Rustiadi 2008: 339), understanding planning is a rational way to prepare for the future.

According to Alder (in Rustiadi 2008: 339), the notion of planning is a process of determining what is to be achieved in the future and determining the stages needed to achieve it.

According to Douglas, the definition of planning is a continuous process of assessment, making goals and objectives, and implementing and evaluating or controlling them.

According to Steiner, the notion of planning is a process of starting with goals, limits of strategies, policies, and detailed plans to achieve them, reaching organizations to implement decisions, and including performance reviews and feedback on introducing new planning cycles.

Basically the planning function is to help the best decision-making process that is in accordance with the goals of the organization. In practice, the planning process carried out by a manager must answer the 5W and 1H questions, namely:

In essence, planning functions to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in organizational activities. Therefore, efforts can be made to identify various obstacles, make corrections to irregularities as soon as possible, so that the organization can be controlled properly.

Each organization certainly has different goals, and of course the plans made will be different. However, basically the organization’s goal of planning is to:

In general, planning can be divided into three, namely based on the scope, based on the level, and based on the time period. The explanation of the types of planning is as follows:

That is a brief explanation of the meaning of planning, functions, goals, and types of planning. Hopefully this article is useful and adds to your insight.

Education Management: Definition, Scope, Function, and Purpose

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What is education management? Definition of Management Education in general is a process of planning, drafting, implementing, and supervising, in managing all resources in the form of human, money, material, methods, machinery, markets, time, and information, to achieve goals effectively and efficiently in the field education.

Management of education in a business or company is carried out directly by education managers to realize the implementation of educational activities that are targeted.

The main objective is to increase the regularity of the implementation of company resources. More about education management and its functions in a business or company will be discussed in this article.

Some experts have explained the understanding of management in the field of education, including:

According to Syarif, the understanding of management of education is all joint efforts to utilize resources “personnel and material” effectively and efficiently to support the achievement of education.

According to Sutisna, the notion of management in the field of education is the whole “process” that makes appropriate personnel and material resources available and effective for achieving common goals in the field of education.

According to Djaman Satori, the notion of education management is the whole process of cooperation by utilizing all available personnel and material resources that are available and appropriate to achieve the educational goals that have been set up effectively and efficiently.

According to Made Pidarta, the understanding of management of education is the activity of combining various educational sources so that they are centralized in an effort to achieve predetermined educational goals.

According to Soebagio Atmodiwirio, management of education is the process of planning, organizing, leading, controlling education personnel, educational resources to achieve educational goals.

According to Engkoswara, management of education is a science that studies how to organize resources to achieve goals that have been set productively and how to create a good atmosphere for humans who participate in achieving the goals agreed upon together.

According to Hadari Nawawi, the understanding of management in the field of education is a series of business control activities in collaboration with a group of people to achieve educational goals, in a planned and systematic manner held in certain environments, especially formal education institutions.

According to W. Haris, management of education is a process of integrating all efforts to utilize personnel and material resources in an effort to effectively develop human qualities.

According to Purwanto and Djojopranoto, the notion of management of education is a joint effort carried out to utilize all human resources, money, materials and equipment and methods to achieve educational goals effectively and efficiently.

According to Stephen J. Kneziech, management of education is a set of organizational functions that have the main objective of ensuring the efficiency and effectiveness of educational services, as well as implementing policies through planning, decision making, leadership behavior, preparation of resource allocation, stimulation and coordination of personnel and organizational climate conducive.

According to Daryanto, the notion of education management is a way of working with people in an effort to achieve effective educational goals.

According to Dasuqi and Somantri, education management is an effort to implement management principles in the field of education.

While Sagala said the notion of management of education is the application of management science in the world of education or as the application of management in coaching, developing and controlling businesses and educational practices.

According to Gaffar, management of education is a systematic, systemic and comprehensive process of cooperation in order to realize national education goals.

Education management according to Mulyasa is interpreted as everything that is concerned with managing the educational process to achieve its intended goals, both short-term, medium-term and long-term goals.

The definition of education management according to the Ministry of Education and Culture’s Bureau of Planning is the process of planning, organizing, leading, controlling education personnel, educational resources to achieve educational goals, educating the nation’s life and developing fully human

Humans as a whole are human beings who believe, fear God Almighty, have virtuous character, have knowledge, skills, physical and spiritual health, a solid, independent personality, and are responsible for society and the nation.

Broadly speaking there are four scope of management in the field of education, including:

The scope based on the work area can be divided into:

The scope based on arable ojek can be divided into:

The scope based on the function or sequence of activities can be divided into:

When we look at the scope of the class environment, the teacher acts as an administrator. Therefore the teacher must be able to carry out various management activities. In other words, the teacher acts as a manager in the class.

There are 4 important elements that must be realized as one of the tools to achieve the goal. The following are 4 important elements in education management functions:

In this case the management of education is obliged to ensure that all resources in various fields can create work maps and that are in accordance with the company’s vision.

Management education collects human resources in the company, capital and equipment needed. This field also has to find the most effective way to achieve the company’s main goals by involving all existing components and ensuring that everything goes according to the track.

Education management is important to mobilize the company’s human resources and encourage the implementation of planned activities to achieve goals. This is important as an efficiency process so that the performance of all employees is effective.

This field has an obligation to control resources to run according to the track that has been set. When something is not right, they have to work straightening it as before.

In general, the main purpose of education management is to shape the personality of students to fit the goals of national education and the level of development or improvement for the age of education.

In addition, management in the education sector also has the following objectives and benefits:

With the ongoing global conditions and more brilliant future opportunities, it can become a big capital to make changes. To achieve this great goal, a large qualification is needed in the management of corporate education. Through improving the qualifications of human resources, the company has carried out a commitment in terms of improving quality, what else in the field of administration.

This management is also obliged to understand opportunities as important capital which is the basis for improving HR quality while increasing high commitment. The benefits? This will automatically provide a domino effect (in positive terms) in terms of company management, business, strategy, human resources, education and teaching.

Companies or businesses that do not have good management in terms of education will hinder their development because their ethos is still less than the standard set. This happens because of the lack of innovation from the team / employee / employee. As mentioned earlier that education management has an element as an organization that will map its resources as what.

The following carefully and systematically is its function:

Seeing the importance of understanding the understanding of management of education, it is time for you to start thinking about establishing this field so that the quality of your business increases.

Definition of Statistics: Objectives, Functions, and Types of Statistics

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Actually, what are statistics? Definition of Statistics is a data collection in the form of numbers and arranged in the form of diagrams and / or tables where the contents explain about a particular problem.

Statistical meaning is a set of methods and rules regarding the collection, analysis, processing, and interpretation of data from numbers that explain data or observations. Etymologically the word “statistic” comes from Latin, namely “status” which means state or related to constitutionality.

Generally statistics are widely used in research in various fields, such as economics, business, manufacturing, marketing, and others. With the statistics it will get a conclusion and facilitate the decision-making process.

In order to better understand the meaning of statistics, we can refer to the opinions of some of the following experts;

According to Prof. Dr. Sudjana, M.A., M.Sc., the notion of statistics is a knowledge related to methods of data collection, data processing, analysis, and conclusions based on data collection and analysis carried out.

According to Anderson & Bancroft, statistical meanings are the science and art of development and the most effective method for collecting, tabulating, and interpreting quantitative data in such a way that errors in conclusions and estimates can be estimated by the use of inductive reasoning based on mathematical probability (opportunity).

According to Prof. Dr. H. Agus Irianto, the definition of statistics is a set of ways and rules relating to collection, processing (analysis), drawing conclusions, on data in the form of numbers using certain assumptions.

According to Anto Dajan, the definition of statistics is quantitative data, both those that have not been arranged and that have been arranged in the form of a table.

According to Croxton and Cowden, the meaning of statistics is a method for collecting, managing, presenting and interpreting data in the form of numbers.

There are at least five main objectives of statistics. The statistical objectives are as follows;

Statistics has two main functions that are very important for research activities. The statistical functions are as follows;

Operational Management: Definition, Function, and Scope

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What is operational management? Definition of Operational Management in general is a maximum management effort in the use of various production factors, from human resources, machinery, tools, raw materials, and other production factors in the process of turning them into various products goods or services.

Operational Management becomes an important thing in an organization or business (read: Understanding Management). And the task also depends on the size of the company. Management of operational management starts from HR, equipment, machinery, raw materials and other things that have an influence on the company’s performance.

Operational management generally plays a role in the issue of strategic issues in determining manufacturing plans as well as project management methods and the implementation of information technology network structures. On the other hand, they also do the following important things:

Operational management must also study the raw materials used for production and ensure that there are no futile advantages. They have a formula for ordering the amount of material needed so that it fits the needs of the company.

Some experts in the field of management explain the definition of Operational Management, including:

According to Eddy Herjanto, the notion of operational management is a continuous and effective process in using management functions to integrate various resources efficiently in order to achieve goals.

According to Jay Heizer and Barry Render, the notion of operational management is a series of activities that produce value in the form of goods and services by converting inputs into outputs.

According to Pangestu Subagyo, the notion of operational management is the application of management science to regulate all production or operational activities so that it can be carried out efficiently.

According to William J. Stevenson, the notion of operational management is a management system or a series of processes in making products or providing services.

According to Richard L. Daft, the definition of operational management is a field of management that focuses on the production of goods, and uses special tools and techniques to solve production problems.

According to James Evans and David Collier, the definition of operational management is science and art to ensure that goods and services are created and successfully sent to customers.

After knowing the meaning of Operational Management, of course we also need to know the scope. There are several interrelated aspects in the scope of operational management, including:

This aspect aims to produce products in accordance with consumer expectations, ranging from quality, price, and profitability.

These are aspects related to the control of the plan that have been made to fit the stated objectives. That way, the planned goals can be achieved well and the results are optimal.

This is an aspect where the information must be well received and obtained appropriately so that production activities can take place effectively and efficiently. This information system is divided into three parts, including; internal information, customer information, and market information.

Environmental aspects play a role in paying attention to trends and developments that occur in an environment. That way, actions taken can provide benefits in increasing production.

If it is adjusted to the understanding of operational management, a manager must really understand the whole process that is in the company. They were involved in the matter of coordinating the process and the latest development while reevaluating its structure.

In this case, organization and productivity are the things that are most needed when becoming an operational manager. He must be able to be in a very flexible position.

Operational Managers have the main tasks in the production process, including:

In general there are four types of Operational Management functions, including:

Supply chain is defined by logistics. This field is related to the process of production and distribution of goods. In this case, “supply chain” regulates the distribution of goods to suppliers, manufacturers and retailers so that they reach consumers.

The point is “supply chain” is always directly related to the finished product and sending things related to the company as goods needed in the company.

Operational management is very closely related to “supply chain” or supply chain management. They must understand global and local trends, understand consumer demand and the capacity of production materials.

Responsible for Delivering Production

The big portion that must be the responsibility of this management is to become the main distributor or distributor of production to consumers. They must ensure the product reaches a certain period of time.

In addition, this department will carry out quality control directly to consumers whether it is feasible and meets their needs. They will then receive direct feedback from consumers and distribute this information as a development process.

At first glance, this management is limited to physical products. Of course you will be confused with two things when typing an organization or company always has two types; production of stored goods and services.

Here are two striking differences. When it’s about the production of physical goods, consumers are not directly involved in contact and they are separated by the shipping process and eventually they buy the product directly through the reseller or retailer. However, in terms of service, consumers can get involved directly seeing the service process.

Management Information System: Definition, Function, Purpose, Benefits, and Examples

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What is meant by a management information system? Definition of Management Information Systems is a system of planning within a company that involves internal control such as the use of resources, documents, technology, and management accounting as one of the strategies in the business.

In essence, management information systems in a business or company aim to collect, process, store and analyze information and then disseminate it for specific purposes.

Information system management is useful as a reference for decision making in an organization or company. Deeper about the management of information systems, objectives, functions and examples of their application in business will be discussed in full in this article.

Related article:

Some experts in the field of management have explained about information system management, including:

According to Raymond McLeod Jr, the notion of management information system is a computer-based system that provides information for some users who have the same needs.

This information explains the company or one of its main systems about what has happened in the past, what is happening now, and what might happen in the future.

According to Nash and Robert, management information systems are a combination of users / people, technology, media, procedures, and also controls, which have a specific purpose.

The aim is to get communication channels, process transaction types, and signal management to events within an organization / company.

According to Bodnar and Hopwood, management information system is a collection of hardware / hardware (read: Understanding Hardware) and software / software to transform data into a more useful form of information.

According to James O’Brien, management information systems are a combination of each unit managed by users or humans, hardware, software, computer networks and data communication networks, and also databases that collect, change, and disseminate information about an organization.

According to James AF Stoner, the notion of management information systems is a formal method that gives management information that is timely, reliable, and can support the decision-making process for planning, monitoring, and operating functions of a more effective organization.

According to Danu Wira Pangestu, management of information systems is a collection of interactions of information systems that are responsible for collecting and processing data to provide information that is useful for all levels of management in planning and controlling activities.

According to Gordon B. Davis, management information system is an integrated system between humans and machines that is able to provide information in such a way as to support the operations, management, and decision-making functions within an organization / company.

According to Azhar Susanto, management of information systems is a group / group of any sub-system / component, both physical and non-physical which are interrelated with each other and have functions in terms of evaluation, control and continuous improvement.

According to Joel D. Aron, management information system is an information system that provides information / data needed by a manager in making decisions.

In accordance with the explanation above, as one form of strategy within the company’s internal implementation of the management information system has the following objectives and functions:

Management information system has a main function that must be useful in the operations of an organization, among them:

In large and long-standing companies, information systems are usually very well structured and programmed. Management information system regulates how interactions within companies and companies with the environment can work in accordance with applicable procedures, for example in production information systems, marketing information systems and in other activities.

Some examples of the application of information systems in companies include:

The company uses an ERP system to manage and carry out integrated supervision in accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, operational and inventory management units.

As the name suggests, Supply Chain Management moves to present integrated data related to raw material supply, such as suppliers, producers, retailers to the last consumer.

A program that is useful for large amounts of processes that occur regularly. Usually applied to salary and investment management.

OAS is most often applied, both in large and small companies that are useful for launching information systems through the integration of computer servers within the company.

IMS is useful to support a spectrum of tasks within the company and can be used to assist decision making. In its application, several information functions are put together through computerized programs such as e-procurement.

KWS will integrate one new knowledge into the company. With this new knowledge, it is expected that experts can apply it to their work.

This information system serves to support a spectrum of various jobs within the organization. IMS is also used to help make decision-making analysis, and can bring together several computerized program information functions, such as e-procurement.

DSS can help managers make decisions by observing the environment of an organization. For example, the Electronic Link at Tunas Bangsa school, which observes the amount of income or new student registration every year.

This management information system basically uses artificial intelligence to analyze problem solving using the knowledge of experts who have been programmed into it. For example, a mechanical schedule system.

The ESS system will help managers in interacting with the organization / company environment by holding on to graphics and other communication supporters.

In essence, management information systems are the company’s efforts to coordinate with each other through a computer system that is arranged in such a way that it can be used to collect data and information more efficiently.

Understanding Efficiency: Objectives, Benefits, Terms and Examples of Efficiency

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What is efficiency? In general, the notion of efficiency is a measure of the success of an activity that is assessed based on the amount of costs / resources used to achieve the desired results.

In this case, the fewer resources used to achieve the expected results, the process can be said to be more efficient. An activity can be said to be efficient if there is an improvement in the process, for example being faster or cheaper.

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), efficiency can be interpreted as the accuracy of the way things are done, and the ability to carry out tasks properly and accurately without wasting costs, time, and effort.

In order to better understand what efficiency means, we can refer to expert opinions. The following is an understanding of efficiency according to experts:

According to Mulyamah (1987; 3), the notion of efficiency is a measure of comparing input usage plans with realized use or other words actual use

According to S. P. Hasibuan (1984; 233-4), the definition of efficiency is the best comparison between input (input) and output (the result between profits with the sources used), as well as optimal results achieved with limited use of resources. In other words, the relationship between what has been done.

Efficiency is often carried out in various fields of human life which of course has a purpose as the reason for efficiency. In general, the efficiency goals are as follows:

From the explanation above we know that the goal of various efficiency efforts is to achieve optimal efficiency. Optimal efficiency is the best comparison between the sacrifices made to get an expected result.

Humans always strive to make efficiency in various fields of life. In order for efficiency efforts to be successful, they must meet the following conditions:

After understanding the meaning of efficiency, we also need to know examples of efficiency that humans often do. The examples of efficiency are as follows:

Optimal efficiency is the best comparison between the sacrifices made to get an expected result.

Efficiency with a benchmark is a comparison between the minimum results determined by the real results achieved, which can be said to be efficient if the real results are greater than the minimum number specified.

As an example

In this case the benchmark is the ability of each of the building workers to achieve the specified minimum results in a certain time.

Efficiency with break-even points is often used in business fields where break even points are the boundary points between efficient and inefficient businesses.

A business or business can be said to be efficient if the break-even point is known and the business produces more than the break-even point.

Thus a brief explanation of the meaning of efficiency, goals and benefits of efficiency, efficiency requirements, and types and examples of efficiency in general. Hopefully this article is useful and adds to your insight.

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